Reference citations in text

For reference citation in text American Psychological Association citation style (APA style) should be followed.


Works by a single author:

a) The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text in parentheses at the appropriate point, e.g. “… individual and creative (Boym, 2001)”.

b) If the name of the author appears as part of the narrative, cite only missing information (year and/or page number) in parentheses, e.g. “Kral (2012, p. 115) suggests…”.

When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text:

a) In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand “&” and year of publication, e.g. “… it is confirmed (Elliott & Percy, 2007)… “.

b) When authors names are part of narrative text, join the names with the word “and”, e.g. “Hamilton and Wagner (2014) confirmed…”.

When a work has three or more authors:

a) Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs and year of publication, e.g. “…consumers’ memories (Kardes, Cronley & Cline, 2011).”. Or if author’s names are part of narrative text “Kardes, Cronley and Cline (2011) argued…”.

b) In all subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.” (Latin for “and others”) and the year of publication, e.g. “… consumer response (Pascal et al., 2002).”.

Or, if author’s names are part of narrative text “Pascal et al. (2001) outlined…”.

Works by associations, corporations, government agencies, etc. are usually written each time they appear in a text reference, e.g. (World Health Organization [WHO], 2015). Next time when it appears in text citation, if company name has acronym, use only acronym and year of publication, e.g. (WHO, 2015).

To cite a specific page of a work, the following two options can be used:

a) (Levy, Weitz & Grewal, 2014, p. 435)

b) Kral (2012, p. 115) suggests…


Only the authors and works or websites that the author(s) refer to in the text and sources of the graphics, are to be cited in the References. The names of the authors need to be numbered and listed in the alphabetical order, beginning with ordinal number one, as follows:

Articles in journals

a) One author

Muehling, D. D. (2013). The relative influence of advertising-evoked personal and historical nostalgic thoughts on consumers’ brand attitudes. Journal of Marketing Communications, 19(2), 98-113.

b) Two authors

Bierey, M. & Schmidt, M. (2017). Banks’ Use of Accounting Discretion and Regulatory Intervention: The Case of European Banks’ Impairments on Greek Government Bonds. The International Journal of Accounting, 52(2), 95-121.

c) Three and more authors

Felix, R., Rauschnabel, P. A. & Hinsch, C. (2017). Elements of strategic social media marketing: A holistic framework. Journal of Business Research, 70(1), 118-126.

d) Article from an Internet-only journal

Grobler, M. & Villiers, C. (2017). Designing a More Effective Way to Surface the Information Needs of People in Developing Communities. The Electronic Journal of Information System in Developing Countries, 82(3), 1-25.


a) One author

O’Shaughnessy, J. (2015). Competitive Marketing: A Strategic Approach. London: Routledge.

b) Two, three or more authors

Levy, M., Weitz, B. A. & Grewal, D. (2014). Retailing Management (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

c) Edited book

Solomon, M. R., Bamossy, G., Askegaard, S. & Hogg, M. K. (Eds.). (2006). Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective (6th ed.). Harlow: Prentice Hall.

d) Chapter in edited book

Babin, B. J. & Borges, A. (2009). Oh yeah, I remember that store! Memory, experience, and value. In: A. Lindgreen, J. Vanhamme & M. B. Beverland (Eds.), Memorable Customer Experiences: A Research Anthology (pp. 161-176). Burlington: Gower Publishing